Cognitive development or the construction of knowledge is the emergence of thinking and understanding ability. It refers to the way individuals think, explore, and observe the things around them. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are considered to be the two most renowned educational psychologists who have hugely contributed to the field of cognitive psychology. According to Jean Piaget,
“Cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience.”
Different Processes That Facilitate Construction of Knowledge
There are six main types of processes that facilitate the construction of knowledge or cognitive development which are as follows:
Language is a means of communication. It includes the four skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. With these skills, we develop the ability to communicate effectively.
Attention refers to the ability to be able to concentrate or focus on one thing or task at a time.
Memory refers to knowledge that is stored in the mind. Our brains store many memories. Memories allow people to recall and recollect objects, information, and situations and react to them.
It includes new information and old information that enables the brain to make sense of a situation, process and perceive them, and respond to them. It includes smell, touch, sight, and hearing.
Learning refers to the acquisition of new knowledge and information. It blends the previous knowledge with new knowledge for better functioning of the brain.
Higher reasoning involves skills such as making decisions, planning and organizing your schedule, planning, plotting, problem-solving, and reasoning.
These are the six different and most common types of cognitive processes for learning. Jerome Bruner researched the cognitive development of children and identified three stages of representation namely, the enactive stage, the iconic stage, and the symbolic representation stage.