Teaching is the process of teaching or giving instructions to another individual or person. It is the process of imparting knowledge. Clerk states,
“Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produce in students behavior.”
Learning takes place throughout one’s life even when one is not in school. Learning is the acquisition of new knowledge, understanding, skills, and behavior. According to Robert Gagne, learning is
“A change in human disposition or capability that persists over a period of time and is not simply ascribable to processes of growth.”
Different Approaches of Teaching Learning Process
The different approaches to teaching and learning in education are as follows:
The humanistic approach to learning is a theory that is learner-centered. It puts emphasis on encouraging learners to develop an interest in educating themselves. It includes the observation of the behavior learners and the outcome of the behavior. However, Barrett states that this observation yields learning and learning does not include a change in behavior. Abraham Maslow is regarded as the father of Humanistic Psychology. He emphasizes experiences in the study of human behavior and learning.
The behaviorist approach to learning refers to the learning that is achieved through environmental interaction. The behaviorist approach to learning was propounded by B.F. Skinner states,
“Learning is a function of change in behavior.”
According to this theory, behavior is learned through the environment, and behavior results from stimulus-response.
In the constructivist approach, the learners are expected and encouraged to construct new knowledge based on their experiences and construct new meaning out of those experiences as well.
Cognitive Information Processing Theory
The cognitive information processing theory refers to how information is processed by the brain and any other intelligent system such as a computing device. It is concerned with the psychological and intellectual development of an individual from childhood to adulthood involving skills such as problem-solving, recalling, perceiving, conceptualizing, and the like.
The interactive approach to learning involves an interactive classroom where learners can interact more and the learning environment is not teacher-centered. Learners are given an opportunity to involve more and be more active in the interactive approach.
In the integrated approach, the teacher connects the topics being taught with other topics of the same subject or other topics belonging to other subjects so that there is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary learning experience.
In the banking approach, the teacher deposits new information and knowledge into the minds of the learners so that they can store this knowledge and information in their memory.
Teaching and learning is a process and not a product. These are the various approaches to teaching and learning in education.