Experiential Learning and Reflection in Construction of Knowledge 


Carl Rogers was an American psychologist who contributed significantly to the humanistic approach in psychology. Rogers believed that there were two types of learning, cognitive which is meaningless and experiential which is significant.

Meaning of Experiential Learning

Experiential learning is denoted to the process in which the learner learns through practical knowledge by doing experiments. Cognitive learning includes academic knowledge experiential learning includes applied knowledge. Experiential learning attends to the needs and desires of the learner. Rogers believes that experiential learning is initiated by the self, involves personal interest and development, knowledge is evaluated by the learner, and it impacts the learner positively.

Meaning of Reflection Process

Reflection process includes the learning and knowledge acquired by the learner which he or she has learnt through practical knowledge and experiential learning. The reflection of knowledge can vary as per the learning environment and thought process during the process.

Experiential Learning and Reflection in Construction of Knowledge

The experiential learning through reflection process plays an important role in constructing cognitive development and knowledge. These processes plays different imperative roles. The experiential learning in reflection and construction of learning should take place as follows:

Positive learning environment

The teacher must create a positive learning environment to facilitate self-initiated learning among children.

Clearing the purposes

Learners must be aware of the goals they can achieve through learning and teachers must be able to give them a purpose to learn new knowledge.

Availability of learning resources

There should be adequate learning resources in the classroom so that the learning process can be organized and students can feel motivated.

Balanced learning

There should be a balance between emotional and intellectual components for organized learning.

Sharing thoughts and feelings

Teachers should not dominate the learners and they should be encouraged to share their thoughts and feelings.

New and modern Curriculum

The use of traditional curriculum must be eliminated and a new curriculum must be implemented.

Teacher must be an active listener

It is essential for the teacher to be an active listener so that he or she can guide the learners properly.


According to Rogers, the main purpose of education should be to nurture learners instead of constructing their academic knowledge only.

Experiential learning
Experiential Learning and Reflection in Construction of Knowledge