Joy Paul Guilford was an American psychologist born on 7 March 1987, in Marquette, Nebraska, U.S. Guilford came up with his theory of intelligence in 1956. He was interested in learning the unevenness of abilities in different domains of children. For him, Intelligence was based not only on one attribute but on various intellectual abilities.
Guilford’s Structure of Intellect Theory
Guilford’s Structure of Intellect (SOI) Model is a theory of multiple intelligences. According to Guilford, Intelligence is a mixture of multiple abilities rather than one attribute. SI theory comprises up to 150 different components of intelligence arranged along three dimensions, which are operation, content, and products.
There are six operations:
It is the ability to understand, comprehend, discover, and become aware of the information gathered.
It is the ability to memorize information.
It is the ability to recollect information.
It is the ability to know if the information is accurate and valid or not.
It is the ability to come up with several solutions to a problem.
It is the ability to end up with a single solution to a problem.
There are six products:
It is a single item of information.
It is a set of items sharing common attributes.
It is the items linked as opposites or in associations, sequences, or analogies.
It is multiple items interrelated to compromise structures or networks.
Change’s perspectives, conversions, or mutations to knowledge.
Predictions, inferences, consequences, or anticipations of knowledge.
There are five contents:
It is the visual information perceived through the eyes.
Information perceived by the ear
Information is perceived as symbols or signs that mean something else.
Information is perceived verbally in words or sentences. It may be in written form or orally.
Information is perceived as acts of an individual/individuals.
Therefore, Guilford’s theory of intelligence consists of 5*5*6= 150 intellectual abilities.