Through the years, many psychologists have come up with many contrasting theories of Intelligence. Charles Spearman, who was a British psychologist, was one of the first psychologists to suggest the theory of Intelligence. Let us understand in detail what his theory of Intelligence suggests.

Spearman Two Factor Theory of Intelligence

  • Spearman’s theory of intelligence is known as  “General Intelligence” or the “g factor”. He established the two-factor theory of Intelligence in 1904.
  • Spearman used the technique of factor analysis to come up with his theory.
  • According to Spearman, intelligence is a general cognitive ability that can be measured and numerically expressed.
  • He feels that humans possess a single underlying factor “a generalized form of intelligence”, known as the g-factor, which helps them to utilize corresponding abilities “a specialized form of intelligence”, known as the s-factor.
  • Spearmen linked this relationship to a common factor, called the General Intelligence (g). Thus, this theory came to be known as the Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence.
  • IQ or intelligence quotient tests, which is a technique of measuring one’s general cognitive abilities, is the outcome of Spearman’s theory of General Intelligence.
  • In his opinion, a student doing well in one subject was likely to do so in corresponding subjects as well, whereas a student doing poorly in a subject would do poorly in corresponding subjects too.
  • For example, a student who was good in General Knowledge would be so in quizzes and debate.
  • A student good in maths would be good in logical games and detecting patterns as well. This is what Spearman’s Two Factor Theory of Intelligence suggests.