Dr. Howard Gardner is an American psychologist born on 11 July 1943 in the United States. Gardner proposed the theory of Multiple Intelligences which is a widely used theory even today in the study of human intelligence. This theory claims that intelligence is based on many factors rather than just academic intelligence. Gardner suggested his theory of multiple intelligences in 1983 in his book “Frames of Mind”.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences- 8 Intelligences
According to Howard Gardner, there are eight types of intelligence a person possesses: Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Musical Intelligence, Bodily-kinesthetic, Naturalistic, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal Intelligence. Let’s look into each intellectual ability in detail.
Verbal-linguistic intelligence, “word smart”
It is the ability of an individual to gather information and use their knowledge to produce creative written work such as poetry and stories or for oral speaking such as speech and debates.
Logical-mathematical intelligence, “maths smart”
This is when a person is good at logic games, can detect patterns, can do calculations, and solve abstract problems.
Visual-spatial intelligence, “picture smart”
This includes people that are good at visual representation such as painters and architects. They look at objects from a different point of view. They also have the ability to form mental images and create their own unique and creative work.
Musical intelligence, “music smart”
This involves people that are good at composing, directing, writing, and creating music, and those good at playing instruments. These individuals have the ability to illustrate a concept and tell stories through their music.
Naturalistic intelligence, “nature smart”
It is the ability of a person to identify and differentiate among the various types of plants, animals, earth, and weather formations present in the world. It’s an understanding of how nature works. This includes botanists, farmers, landscapers, and more.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, “body smart”
It is the ability to use one’s body to express emotions, create products or solve problems. It includes surgeons, athletes, and dancers to name a few.
Interpersonal intelligence, “people smart”
It is the ability to interact and communicate with others. These people have empathy for others and are good at noticing and understanding other people’s moods, desires, motivations, and intentions. Teachers and counselors are included in this type of Intelligence.
Intrapersonal intelligence, “self smart”
People can recognize and acknowledge one’s feelings, emotions, allowing for self-reflection and awareness. These people are conscious of the little things in life and have a greater connection with things in the world. These include philosophers, psychologists, and theologists.
These are the eight different types of intelligence that Dr. Howard Gardner has proposed to be found in an individual.