Different theories of intelligence have been developed by many psychologists. While some psychologists believe intelligence is genetic and influenced by biological factors, others believe intelligence is acquired through life learning and experiences and influenced by environmental factors.
Historical Background of Human Intelligence
Sir Francis Galton was one of the first to study human intelligence which dates back to the late 1800s. The term “intelligence quotient” or “IQ” was given by the German psychologist, William Stern in the early 20th century. The first intelligence test was developed by Psychologist Alfred Binet to help the French government identify schoolchildren that needed extra help in academics.
Different Types of Intelligence Theory
It can be said that intelligence is determined by both biological and environmental factors. Let’s look at the different theories of intelligence psychologists have suggested over the years.
Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence
A British psychologist named Charles Spearman suggested one of the earliest theories of intelligence known as General intelligence or the g factor. According to him, students who did well in one subject were likely to do well in corresponding subjects and vice versa.
Howard Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences
According to Howard Gardner, there are eight different types of Intelligence, which are:
- Linguistic Intelligence (“word smart”): People are good with writing and oral activities.
- Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (“number/reasoning smart”): People are good at solving problems, detecting patterns, and logic games.
- Visual-Spatial Intelligence (“picture smart”): People are good at visual representation.
- Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“body smart”): People are good at understanding how the body functions.
- Musical Intelligence (“music smart”): People are good at music-related activities and playing instruments.
- Naturalist Intelligence (“nature smart”): People are good at understanding animals, plants, earth and the atmosphere.
- Interpersonal Intelligence (“people smart”): People are good at understanding others feelings and emotions.
- Interpersonal Intelligence (“self smart”): People are good at understanding their thoughts, values, attitudes and more.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence was proposed by an American psychologist called Robert Sternberg. He proposed this theory, two years after Gardner’s theory stating what was lacking in the latter’s theory. According to him, there are three different types of intelligence:
A person can assess information and solve problems.
It is the ability to do something innovatively in order to create new ideas.
It is the ability to solve problems and adapt to changing environments.
There are many more theories about Intelligence that have been proposed by different psychologists through the decades. However, the above-mentioned theories of Intelligence are important and should be remembered.