Observation Techniques of Checklist and Rating Scale

Observation schedule refers to a form that is prepared before the collection of data which is used for delineating the behaviour and situational features that need to be observed and recorded during the observation. Observation schedules may differ on a quantitative as well as a qualitative continuum. It is a method where data is collected by the observer in the field through observation. 

Types of Observation Schedule

There are various types of observation schedule which are as follows: 

1. Structured and unstructured observation 

2. Controlled and uncontrolled observation 

3. Participant and nonparticipant observation 

A rating scale refers to a device which is used to systematise the opinion concerned with a trait. It is a technique of observation which is defined by Barr as,

“Rating is a term applied to expression of opinion or judgment regarding some situation, object, or character. Opinions are usually expressed in a scale of values. Rating techniques are devices by which such judgments may be quantified.”

Types of Rating Scale

There are four main types of rating scale which are as follows:

1. Numerical Rating Scale 

2. Descriptive Rating Scale 

3. Graphical Rating Scale 

4. The Rank Order Scale 

Observation checklist is one of the instruments that is commonly used for performance evaluation. It enables the observer to determine whether a trait is present or not. It includes a list of steps, behaviours, and activities that the observer needs to record during the occurrence of an incident. The observer needs to judge a certain behaviour that has occurred. 

It is a simple instrument which consists of a prepared list of expected items of attributes and performances which are checked by an evaluator to record the absence or presence of a trait. Checklists are created by breaking the quality of a product and a performance which denotes the absence of presence of a trait or an attribute which then goes on to be checked by the observer or the traitor.