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Critical Review of Current Evaluation Practices B.Ed Notes
Mary Thorpe states, Evaluation is the collection, analysis and interpretation of information about any aspect of a programme of education, as part of a recognised process of judging its effectiveness, its efficiency and any other outcomes it may have.” According to Borg,
“Teacher evaluation, then, is the process through which judgements about the quality of teachers are made. Assessing teachers’ performance in the classroom and its impact on students are core elements in this process. However, as suggested in the definitions above, in evaluating teachers it is also important to consider broader elements of teacher quality such as planning, reflection, professional development and contributions to school effectiveness more generally.”
The National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education emphasises upon the need for improved evaluation of teachers. It lays specific stress on the continuous assessment of pre- service teacher trainees through the use of both qualitative and quantitative measures. With the support of agencies such as the National University of Educational Planning and Administration (NUEPA), the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), and bilateral agencies like Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) working with UNICEF, the government has been taking small initiatives through the creation of national tools to facilitate the process of evaluation and make it effective.
Models of teacher evaluation framed by the government
There are three main models of teacher evaluation framed by the government which are as follows:
Advancement of Educational Performance through Teacher Support (ADEPTS)
ADEPTS is a Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and UNICEF initiative. It seeks to improve the quality of education by using performance indicators. ADEPTS believes that if a teacher wants to thrive and take ownership of their performance, a range of enabling conditions needs to be in place.
PINDICS was launched in 2013 by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). It involves a set of indicators developed to assess the performance and progress of elementary teachers. It builds on the work done under the MHRD–UNICEF initiative.
National Programme on School Standards and Evaluation (NPSSE) – Shaala Siddhi
The NPSSE or Shaala Siddhi framework is the most recent and the third attempt to set up a formative national-level system. This aims to institutionalise a comprehensive and holistic evaluation system that can enhance school-based standards and performance in India.
Strategies such as classroom observations, student learning outcomes, student evaluation of the teacher, professional conversations, parent feedback, peer evaluation, teacher self-evaluation, teacher tests, teacher portfolios, and the like are used as per Borg for the process of teacher evaluation.
Types of evaluation
There are different types of evaluation which are as follows:
Formative evaluation is conducted and practiced through developing the course. It is a kind of evaluation practice in which teacher uses this practice to analyze the performance of each student. It is mainly performed nowadays to evaluate every student’s strengths and weaknesses so that teaching learning process could be accomplished. In current scenario, formative evaluation does not only pave a way for evaluation but it also provides the students an opportunity to take feedback from their teachers. In this evaluation, grades are not given so that students can confidently build relationship with learning process. For example, the discussions and short quizzes.
In the current scenario, summative evaluation is also prevalent. In this type of evaluation, the evaluation is taken place at the end of the course to evaluate the overall learning achievement. The academic learning achievement is evaluated in the summative evaluation. It is done at the end of the curriculum to look at the conclusive result and outcome of the total teaching-learning process.
Diagnostic evaluation is a way of evaluation in which student’s weakness and learning problems are diagnosed and identified. This is done before the process of teaching to make students realize the room for improvement and learning. For example, nowadays, questionnaires and short quizzes are made to test the previously knowledge of the students. Through this evaluation, the student’ future potential and capabilities are highlighted which can be further utilized. It is mostly done in formal ways.
Norm Referenced Test
Norm referenced tests are the type of evaluation in which a student’s academic performance is compared with a group of students. It foster competition among students. In this, the student is compared at state or district level in comparison with other present students. It is done at the end of the course, therefore, making it summative evaluation. With this evaluation l, nowadays, the students are developing negative and unhealthy competition.
Criterion-referenced test is a type of evaluation in which student’s performance is evaluated on the basis of criteria which is checked individually rather than comparing it with other students or a particular group. Towards, this type of evaluation is also being performed for assessing the student’s individual potential. It works as non-discriminating and non-baised as well as motivates the students. It is done at the class level. It also provides aid in remedial teaching and inspiration in teaching learning process.