What are the Principles and aims of Education according to Naturalism Philosophy ?
Naturalism philosophy suggests that all living beings and events that occur are all natural. It states that nature is the ultimate reality and the real world. It believes that without nature there is no reality and everything is controlled by nature itself. It does not hold belief in supernaturalism and spiritualism. Naturalism has a huge influence on both theoretical and practical education.
Definitions of Naturalism
1. Dr. Pram Nath
“Naturalism is an attitude rather than a specific system of philosophy”.
2. Thomas and Lamg
“Naturalism is opposed to idealism. It subordinates mind to matter and holds that ultimate reality in material not spiritual”.
3. Rusk’s views,
“Naturalism is a philosophical position adopted by those who approach philosophy from a purely scientific point of view.”
Aims of Naturalism
i). Individual Development
The main aim is to help in the development of individuals in every aspect and make them capable enough for themselves.
ii). Achieve Social Progress
It helps in development and advancement of society. Education will help in achieving the progress that society desires.
iii). Education for Adjustment
It enables individuals to adjust physically and mentally to the environment and with the occurring changes in society.
Principles of Naturalism
- i). Nature is the ultimate reality and everything happens naturally in the world.
- ii). The universe is controlled by nature and the laws of nature cannot be changed.
- iii). Naturalism considers scientific knowledge to be the highest and greatest knowledge.
- iv). Naturalism believes there is nothing beyond nature and it is nature alone.
- v). It regards the material world to be the real world.
- vi). Nature has the answer to all philosophical problems.
- vii). Naturalism believes without nature there cannot be reality and that the two are the same thing.
- viii). Nature grows and develops with time and humans do too along with it.
Naturalism helps in making education progressive. It considers education to be a natural necessity. Naturalism does not encourage bookish knowledge. This school of philosophy has introduced modern methods of teaching. It has made teaching and learning more useful and effective.