Sankhya Philosophy of Education and Educational Implications B.Ed Notes
Philosophy and education are closely related. The term philosophy has been derived from two Greek words- Philo means “love” and Sophie means “wisdom”. Philosophy means love of wisdom. Education is a part of philosophy. Education and philosophy differ in nature. While education is practical, philosophy is theoretical. Education is a planned activity with aims and goals of its own. As said by Thomas Ogwara,
“Philosophy points out to the society what. . . is to be achieved through education.”
Philosophy helps in determining how the goals can be achieved. Philosophy sets goals and education works on fulfilling them. The aims of education depend on the aim of life. Philosophy is crucial in education as well as in life.
Sankhya philosophy is the oldest of the philosophical schools and the most important in the East. The Sankhya philosophy was founded by Sage Kapila. Sankhya is a dual school of philosophy which consists of matter (Prakriti) and souls (Purusha). The philosophy states that the two differ from each other. True knowledge is being able to distinguish between Prakriti and Purusha. Purusha is consciousness. It is the knowledge gained through one’s own experience in life. Prakriti is nature which is eternal. It consists of three gunas (qualities), which are:
This is the highest of the three gunas. It is the principle of goodness, integrity and positivity of the person. Sattva is considered as the highest traits which a human being can possess. It is included on one’s life through satvic food, behaviour, charity and other traits.
It is the principle of activity, enthusiasm and ability to perform well. Rajas principle is based on the rewards and appreciation comes along with fulfilling the basic duties of human life.
It is the principle of darkness, laziness and negativity. It is the lowest of all principles which needs to be improved and taken towards Satvic traits.
According to Sankhya Philosophy, these three gunas are possessed by each individual in different amounts. Each person experiences these qualities at different times in their life. This philosophy states that a person who masters in handling all these qualities at the right time, will achieve success.
Educational Implications of Sankhya Philosophy in Education
- i). It emphasises on discovering the potential of a man that is already within him which leads to his perfection.
- ii). It should attempt to make a man understand the difference between Purusha and Prakrati.
- iii). Education should improve man in all aspects. It aims to develop man to the fullest and modify his behaviour.
- iv) Sankhya philosophy believes that education should be attained in a way in which a person should achieve the highest of one’s morals and ethical values.