Teacher Education = Teaching Skills + Teaching Objectives + Teaching Culture (Social, Logical value)
W.H. Kilpatrick states,
“Teacher education encompasses teaching skills, sound pedagogical theory, and professional skills.”
Teacher education can be regarded as a continuous process and it is broad and comprehensive. “Teacher is the most important element in any educational program,” the establishment of quality education is determined by the determination of a teacher. The teachers are required to acquire adequate knowledge, skills, interest, and the right attitude towards the teaching profession. Their work has been more complex regarding new theories of psychology, philosophy, sociology, modern media, and materials. Therefore teacher education is a program that enables the teachers to be well equipped for their profession.
Structure of Teacher Education System in India
The structure of teacher education is multidimensional and multi-layer. India has revised the structure of teacher education several times. However, currently, there are two main types of teacher education programs which are as follows:
Pre-service teacher education
It refers to the program that prepares teachers to teach from pre-primary to higher education level before joining the professional field of teaching. It is the first phase of teacher education and is imparted in formal and informal modes too. There are two main types of pre-service teacher education programs which are as follows:
● General teacher education
● Physical teacher education
In-service teacher education
It refers to the program which is related to the professional development of teachers who have already entered the professional field of teaching. It is imparted in formal as well as the informal mode and is a short-term course. In-service education includes the following programs:
● Induction program
● Refresher course
In-service and pre-service teacher education are the two main types of teacher education programmes in India. However, there is a lack of quality and uniformity in the programs at different levels across India. In-service programs receive less focus and the pre-service programs must be minimized to improve quality and increase productivity.
Merits of the structure of the teacher education
Merits of the structure of the teacher education system in India:
- Better Planning: It enables teachers to plan and deliver instructions effectively as per the learning needs of all students regardless of their developmental and cognitive levels, and learning styles.
- Better Organisation: It also enables teachers to organize the classroom environment and manage it better for maximum academic performance.
- Better Classroom Management: It enables teachers to manage the skills interactions in the classroom in a better manner to create a conducive and safe learning environment for the student’s academic success.
- Develops Cooperation: It also develops the skills of cooperation among teachers so that they can collaborate with students, parents, and other colleagues of the school community with cooperation.
- Dynamic Classroom Environment: It enables the teacher to create a dynamic classroom environment facilitated by effective and positive communication between students, teachers, parents, and other school community members.
Limitations of the structure of the Teacher Education System
Limitations of the structure of the teacher education system in India:
- Lack Of Facilities For Professional Development: Some institutions may have inadequate resources and facilities necessary for the successful completion of the pre-service teacher training course.
- Lack Of Regulations: There may also be a lack of regulations to check on the disciplinary actions of the pre-service teachers under training.
- Negative attitude: Some pre-service teachers may have a negative attitude towards the training as they may have entered the course without any consideration of personal interest
- Lack Of Motivation: Lack of secure employment opportunities after the completion of the pre-service training course may also lead the teachers to lose motivation to complete the course.
- Lack Of Monitoring: There is a lack of monitoring efforts when it comes to teacher-education institutions across India due to which there may be a negative impact on the quality of training.
According to the International Encyclopedia of teaching and teacher education (1987), the pre-service and in-service components of teacher education are complementary to each other. In-service and pre-service teacher education are the two main types of teacher education programs in India. However, there is a lack of quality and uniformity in the programs at different levels across India. In-service programs receive less focus and the pre-service programs must be minimized to improve quality and increase productivity.