Components, Characteristics, and Problems of Pre-Service Teacher Education

Pre-service teacher education refers to an educational program that prepares and trains freshers for the professional field of teaching. It helps in crucial learning and enables future teachers to develop a holistic learning environment for learners. It offers knowledge, attitude, and skills so that the teachers can conduct classes effectively.

Pre-service teacher education refers to the education of teachers before they enter into service as professional teachers. Pre-service teacher education facilitates learning among teachers or individuals who want to enter into the professional field of teaching. It is the specialized application of skills, knowledge, and attributes that are designed to offer unique services to meet the educational needs of the society and the individual too.

Components of Pre-Service Teacher Education

The main components of pre-service teacher education are as follows:

Pedagogy Courses (Subject Specialization) Through Use Of Discussions

Discussion-based pedagogical courses refer to Teaching and learning approaches that are dialogue-based. Their main aim is to promote participatory and interactive classroom environments.

Foundation Courses Through Critical Exposure

These courses enable pre-service teachers to train in a contemporary school environment with a global context.

Reflective Reading Based On Great Thinkers’ Work

Reflective reading refers to a practice of thoughtful reading of the work of great thinkers and includes a lot of questions. In reflective reading, the activity progresses from entertainment to a spiritual, thoughtful, and intentional activity.

Internship Through School Attachment

During the internship through school attachment, pre-service teachers must go to their assigned school to observe and practice how they must teach once they become in-service teachers.

School-Based Activity Course

All the activities held in school during school internship are known as school-based activities.

School-Based Practical

Micro lessons, macro lesson plans, simulated lesson plans, and Real Teaching lesson plans are to be maintained as per the school practice internship.

Characteristics of Pre-service Education

The main characteristics of pre-service education are as follows:

  1. All pre-service teacher education programs should meet the norms and standards developed by NCTE for quality checks.
  2. Pre-service teacher education should not only take place through face-to-face institutional courses for a minimum duration of one academic year.
  3. The point mentioned above leads to the abolition of the private system of teacher education across various Universities.
  4. It is believed that B.Ed through correspondence is not suitable to prepare a teacher professionally and effectively.
  5. Reorientation of the teacher training program has become necessary following the introduction of the ML-based teaching-learning process in the school specifically at the elementary level for the formulation of teacher education.

Problems of Pre-service Education

The problems of pre-service education are as follows:

Lack Of Facilities For Professional Development

Some institutions may have inadequate resources and facilities necessary for the successful completion of the pre-service teacher training course.

Lack Of Regulations

There may also be a lack of regulations to check on the disciplinary actions of the pre-service teachers under training.

Negative attitude

Some pre-service teachers may have a negative attitude towards the training as they may have entered the course without any consideration of personal interest.

Lack Of Motivation

Lack of secure employment opportunities after the completion of the pre-service training course may also lead the teachers to lose motivation to complete the course.

Lack Of Monitoring

There is a lack of monitoring efforts when it comes to teacher-education institutions across India due to which there may be a negative impact on the quality of training. Eisner (1992) stressed,

“preservice   teachers   are  socialized  into   the   profession   through   continuous contact with teachers for about 15 years before starting to teach.”

Kansanen  (1991)  observes,

“prospective teachers have first observed teaching during their 12 years at school and after that a few more years while studying   practicing.”

India now follows a general ten-years school system which is divided into three stages preschool education, elementary education, and secondary education. Pre-service teacher education prepares fresher teachers for the teaching profession. The program helps in crucial learning and it is best suited for individuals who want to further their professional careers in the education and academic field.

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