What are Some Biological and Environmental Factors that Could Affect a Child’s Development?


JE Anderson states,

“Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situations”.

Biological Factors Affecting Child Development

The biological and environmental factors that could affect a child’s development are as follows:


Heredity refers to the transfer of genes or physical traits from parents to children. It plays a major role in influencing the physical development of a child such as their weight, height, eye color, hair color, body structure, and more. Diseases and illnesses are also known to be transmitted through heredity which can affect a child’s physical development.


The gender of the child also plays a crucial role in their physical development. While nearing puberty, boys and girls grow and develop in different ways. In adolescence, girls mature faster than boys. Boys tend to have a more athletic body. Boys and girls also develop different temperaments.


Hormones have an influence over various parts of the body. Different glands produce hormones and their proper functioning is essential to ensure normal physical development in children. Hormonal imbalances may cause obesity, growth defects, and other issues.

Environmental Factors Affecting Child Development


The development of a child also depends on environmental factors. A child needs a proper and well nourished environment for proper development. A child who is nurtured in a caring environment will have better physical development over a childhood who is nurtured in a stressful environment.

Home Environment

A child’s home environment can also affect their cognitive development.  If a child is exposed to early learning experiences, their intellectual functioning quickens and therefore, they are able to have a relatively faster cognitive development.

Socio-Economic Status

Socio-economic status refers to the social status and economic health of an individual. A child belonging to a good socio-economic background is likely to gain better educational attainment than someone who comes from a poor socio-economic background. Children require proper nutrition, nourishment, and nurture when growing up. Without proper care, they may not be able to have proper physical development. Children belonging to poor families may not have the resources required for proper physical development which may cause them to have deficiencies.

Home Atmosphere

Home is the first place children learn to socialize in. A child belonging to a happy family and having a positive home atmosphere is likely to have better social development.


These are some of the most important biological and environmental factors that could affect a child’s development.

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