Howard Gardner

Howard Gardner is an American psychologist who propounded the theory of multiple intelligence which suggests that there is not one but various types of intelligence. It challenges the old belief that there is only one type of intelligence.

Types of Intelligences

Gardner proposed eight different types of intelligences which consist of the following:

Linguistic Intelligence

This type of intelligence is concerned with the written and spoken language, the ability to acquire or learn a language, and to use the language to fulfill one’s ambitions. People who have linguistic intelligence are adept in activities including written and verbal language such as books, speeches, and the like. For instance, William Shakespeare.

Logical Mathematical Intelligence

Logical intelligence refers to the ability of solving problems by analyzing them in a logical manner. People with logical intelligence have the ability to solve calculations and problems effectively. For instance, Albert Einstein.

Spatial Intelligence

This type of intelligence refers to the ability to recognise the patterns of wide spaces of confined areas. This kind of intelligence can be found amongst architects, chess players, and the like. For instance, Amelia Earhart.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

It refers to the ability to use one’s body or parts of the body to solve problems or perform certain activities. These people are good in activities like sports, dance, and the like. For instance, Cristiano Ronaldo.

Musical Intelligence

It refers to the ability to create, compose, perform, and appreciate musical patterns. For instance, Taylor Swift.

Interpersonal Intelligence

It is the ability to understand the emotions, desires, intentions, and the like of other people to communicate with them effectively. For instance, Mother Teresa.

Intrapersonal Intelligence

It refers to the ability of understanding oneself, one’s emotions, desires, fears, and the like to live one’s life successfully. For instance, Aristotle.

Naturalist Intelligence

It refers to the ability to recognize and classify the numerous species of one’s surroundings. For instance, Charles Darwin.

Conclusion

These are the eight types of multiple intelligences suggested by Gardner. Many cognitive psychometircians and psychologists do not support this theory stating that there is less empirical evidence.