Steps, Process and Methods of Sampling in Research Methodology
Sampling method is selecting a group of people from a population to gather information on a particular topic or product. It is gathering maximum information of a population without surveying every member from it. Sampling method will help in acquiring reliable information while making it convenient.
Sampling method is used mainly when it is impossible to surveying the whole population. The sample must be the representation of the population the researcher has gathered information from. Sampling will help the researcher get significant research result. Sampling method produces results relatively faster and is less expensive.
Steps of Sampling Process
Following are the steps of sampling process:
i. Define the target population:
The first step is defining the population that is of interest to the researcher for gathering information.
ii. Specifying the sampling frame:
This is a list of components from which sample may be obtained such as a group of people that belong under the same category of income.
iii. Specifying the sampling unit:
It is identifying the exact audience that is of target to the researcher such as of particular age group or gender.
iv. Selection of sampling method:
The researcher has to choose a sampling method that is most relevant for his/her research. A lot of factors influence the selection of method such as objectives of the research, time constraints, financial resources and nature of the research problem.
v. Determination of sample size:
The size of sample is also an important step to consider in the sampling process.
vi. Specifying the sample plan:
The step lists down how the research process is going to be implemented. It outlines the working method of the sampling plan.
vii. Selecting the sample:
The final step of sampling process deals with putting into action the selection of sample elements.
i. Defining the population.
ii. Determining the sampling frame.
iii. Selecting the sampling method.
iv. Determine the sampling size.
v. Executing the sampling process.
Methods of Sampling Process
There are two primary methods of sampling which are:
I. Probability Sampling Method
II. Non-probability Sampling Method
I. Probability Sampling Methods
This method involves random selection of a group of people from a population to gather information. There are four types of probability sampling:
i. Simple random sampling
In random sampling, any member of the population had an equal chance of being selected for the survey.
ii. Systematic sampling
In this method, the researchers choose the members of a population for sampling at regular intervals. Systematic sampling had a predefined range and hence is the least time-consuming method.
iii. Stratified sampling
Stratified sampling divides the population into different categories which is necessary to gather relevant conclusions. The population may be divided on basis of gender, age, income, etc.
iv. Cluster Sampling
Cluster sampling also divided the population into subgroups but instead of having different characteristics, these groups have similar characteristics.
II. Non-probability Sampling Methods
The selection of individuals is done on non- random criteria. Not every person gets a chance of being selected. There are four methods of non-probability sampling which are:
i. Convenience Sampling
As the name suggests, the researchers chooses those people to gather data who are easily accessible to him/her.
ii. Purposive Sampling
This method of sampling is also known as judgemental sampling. The researcher selects the sampling method that’s is most useful for the research.
iii. Voluntary Response Sampling
In this method instead of the researcher selecting participants, individuals volunteer themselves to do the survey.
iv. Snowball Sampling
In snowball sampling, participants are gathered via the contacts of other participants. This sampling method is used when the research subject is difficult to track and gathering participants becomes an issue.
Sampling method makes collecting data easier in a large population. It is cost- effective, time-efficient, manageable and practical. It will help in surveying a manageable number of the population. Sampling method is budget friendly. The cost of gathering people and collecting data will cost lower. Sampling method will help in collecting richer data than contacting everyone in a population.