4 provisions of both the Montreal protocol and the Kyoto protocol

The Montreal Protocol was signed in 16 September, 1987 and came into effect on 1 January, 1989. It is an international treaty introduced for the protection of ozone layer by phasing out the production of substances that cause ozone depletion. The ozone depleting substances aregreenhouse gases that too are responsible for climate change. The ratifiers were 198 all members of the United Nations (197 states and the European Union). It is the first treaty in history of the United Nations to receive universal ratification. The treaty is thus considered to be the most successful environmental global action. 

Four Provisions of the Montreal Protocol 

The Montreal Protocol has successfully lowered he global production, consumption, and release of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). The four provisions of the Montreal Protocol are as follows: 

1). It aims to reduce the use and emission of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) in a stepwise, time-bound manner. 

2). It has different timetables for developed and developing countries.

3). All member parties have specific responsibilities related to the phase out of the various groups of ozone-depleting substances, controlling ODS trade, reporting of data annually, controlling import and export of ODS, etc. 

4). The developed and developing countries are provided with equal but different responsibilities that are time-bound, binding and measurable for both category of nations, which makes the provisions effective. 

Kyoto Protocol 

The Kyoto Protocol was set up in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December, 1997. However, it came into force only on 16 February, 2005 due to the complex ratification process. There were 192 parties to the Kyoto Protocol. It was an international treaty that was an extension to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of 1992. It was introduced to limit and reduce greenhouse gases emissions. 

Four Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol 

The provisions of the Kyoto Protocol are the following: 

1). The Kyoto Protocol was an international agreement that called for industrialised nations to limit and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions significantly in accordance with agreed individual targets. 

2). To reduce greenhouse gases emissions which applied to six greenhouse gases, that are:carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, per fluorocarbons, sulphurhexafluoride. 

3). Only members that belonged to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. 

4). The targets only binds developing countries and were not binding on developing countries that were still struggling to achieve economic development.