What are the Types and Classification of values B.Ed Notes

Values are an essential  part of every individual’s life as it shapes their behaviour and personality and attitude in life. Values reflects a person and tells a lot about them. Values are necessary for the overall development of an individual such as character, personality, and spiritual development. Values develop a well-balanced individual with a strong character, values and teaches mannerism. It teaches people to help others in need and think from other person’s perspective. Moral values help people to be more selfless and considerate. Values make an individual understand what is good or bad, and, right or wrong in the society. Values develop a responsible and sensible citizen.

Types of Values 

• Personal Values

It means an individual’s values both in terms of their possession and use. It is the desires of an individual irrespective of his/her social relationship.Examples: ambition, creativity, cleanliness, discipline, honesty, excellence, etc.

• Social Values

Interaction among humans is necessary for society to exist. Values like love, affection and friendship as well as courtesy, forgiveness and sympathy are good for the society and necessary to form relationships in society.

• Moral Values

Moral values shape the behaviour and attitude of people in the society. These values are important consider for co-existence and well-being. Individuals can differentiate between right and wrong and good and bad in society. Example include, fairness, honesty, justice, etc.

• Ethical Values

These are a set of moral principles for human conduct. Ethics shapepeople’s social behaviour and adopts good manners within them. It teaches to treat everyone with respect and compassion. Ethics guide people in speaking the truth, keeping promises, helping others and treating everyone with equality.

• Spiritual Values

It relates to the non-materialistic things in life and acquiring insights into personal experiences. Spiritual values leads to self realisation and help in living a balanced and meaningful life. Examples are truth, goodness and beauty. 

• Cultural Values

Cultural values are the standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, good or bad, right or wrong in a society. Examples being hospitality,and tolerance. 

Classification of Values

In general, values may be classified as below-

• Personal values

• Social values,

• Moral Values,

• Spiritual values

• Behavioural values.

Values have been classified by different researchers as listed below:

1. Spranger’s classification

• Theoretical values Economic values  Aesthetic values

• Social values

• Political values

• Religious values

2. Gandhi’s Classification

• Truth

• Freedom

• Democracy

• Sarva dharma sarnabhava

• Equality

• Self-realization 

• Purity of ends and means

• Self-discipline

3. Plato’s Classification

• Truth

• Beauty

• Goodness

4Parker’s Classification

• Biological values

• Economical values 

• Affective values 

• Social values

• Intellectual values 

• Aesthetic values 

• Moral values

• Religious values.