What are the main agents of socialisation in contemporary society?
According to Jonathan Turner, “a complex of positions, roles, norms and values lodged in particular types of social structures and organising relatively stable patterns of human activity with respect to fundamental problems in producing life-sustaining resources, in reproducing individuals, and in sustaining viable societal structures within a given environment.”
As said by Bogardus, “A social institution is a structure of society that is organised to meet the needs of people chiefly through well established procedures.”
Family is the main institution of society. It is the oldest social institution. Family influences the younger generation’s habits, behaviour, values, beliefs and in developing proper behavioural patterns.
Education institutions help to provide knowledge and skills to children. It is a necessary institution of society as it leads to the development of children and adopts acceptable behaviour and habits in them. Educational institutions also make individuals ready for their future and understand their interests.
iii). Peer Groups
Peers are an important agent of socialisation. A peer group consists of people with same age, social status, and interests. Children learn how to interact with others and develop an identity for themselves from their peers. Peer groups influence children’s interests, beliefs about the world, and approaches regarding numerous situations.
Religion has been practiced since ancient times since the forming of social institutions. It helps to establish proper values, beliefs, norms and morals in humans. Religion is a system of worship and faith.
Political institutions provide rules, laws, and regulations to control humans from doing anything harmful and wrong in society. It helps in maintaining order, discipline and protecting citizens in society.
vi). Mass Media
Mass media consists of television, newspapers, radio, books, magazines and theinternet. Media’s role in socialisation has been increasingly important through the years.
Every institution has certain rules and regulations that need to be followed by everyone. Social institutions help in fulfilling the primary needs of individuals as well as in providing material resources. Institutions are universal as they exist in every society.
Social institutions assign roles and tasks to members of society. They govern human behaviour and controls individuals. It provides the required freedom to individuals in a society.