Back to: Contemporary India and Education-Unit 1
The Industrial Revolution has been an integral part of history. It has resulted in many far-reaching consequences in the society’s structure. Before the revolution took place, workers possessed their raw materials and tools. They had all the responsibility to themselves and sold the finished product to consumers at the quantity and price they wished to sell. However, after the revolution, the individualist capitalist entered the scenario, established a factory, secured the raw materials, took the workers to the factory to produce goods, and gave birth to industrialization.
The production process was, therefore, separated from the selling process. The revolution was characterized by fixed capital, factory production, and free labor. As a result, industrial society was born. The post-industrial society is characterized by the emergence of segmentalized roles, the impersonality of relationships, modern family, occupation sub-cultures, economic institutions, social mobility. It also led to working opportunities for women. The industrial society is highly literate. It boasts economic prosperity but is individual-oriented.
The modern school system became prevalent from the late 1800s and early 1900s to be following the industrial economy. Public schools were established to train the masses with skills and send them as a labor force for the factories. Secondary education offered more flexible skills and aimed to supply the professional and managerial leadership of the industrial economy. Higher education aimed to supply doctors, engineers, scientists, and the like to facilitate rapid technological advancements and urbanization. The current education system is a result of various moderations and altercations that took place all through the years.
Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Education
The impact of urbanization and industrialization on education is as follows:
Access to schools
Urbanisation and industrialization give parents employment opportunities with a good source of income. Those who enjoy a good income may have the financial resources to send their children to the best schools.
Due to the advancements in technology, education and learning are no longer limited to textbooks or confined to the four walls of the classroom. Various e-learning platforms facilitate learning from home and various digital devices that facilitate learning.
Source of knowledge
Previously, the main source of knowledge for learners was books. The advent of the internet has changed this scenario because they can Google anything these days and find the answer they are looking for.
The main aim of education is to help learners become self-sufficient individuals by finding a job and having a secure career. This is done through the provision of teaching skills and knowledge that prepare the learners for the work front. Urbanization has increased employment opportunities so learners can find employment through the education they have received.
In urban areas, the quality of education is much better than in rural areas. They also have higher educational institutions which cause the learners belonging to the rural areas to move to the urban areas not just for educational opportunities but also for employment opportunities.
These are the various ways in which industrialization and urbanization have impacted and continue to impact education in India.