What are the Problems of Universalisation of Elementary Education in India?

Education is an individual’s dynamic force and plays a highly influential role in a person’s mental, emotional, social, physical, creative, spiritual, and ethical development. It helps an individual to go through various experiences and implement these experiences in creating a meaningful life. According to Plato,

“Education is the capacity to feel pleasure and pain at the right moment it develops in the body and in the soul of the student all the beauty and all the perfection which he capable of.”

Universalisation of elementary education refers to the enrollment, retention, and universal access to qualitative education for children up to the age of 14. Elementary education is a Fundamental Right. The provisions included in the Constitution of India emphasize offering elementary education to all children. Attempts by India to universalize elementary education (UEE) dates back to the pre-independence period. This fostered the inclusion of the same under the Indian Constitution’s Directive Principles of State Policy under Article 45 (1950).

According to Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy,

“The State shall endeavor to provide, within ten years from the commencement of the Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they attain the age of 14 years.”

Problems in the Universalization of Education

The problems in the universalization of education in India are as follows:

Ignorance by parents

Despite the government’s efforts to offer free and compulsory education, many people living in remote areas still ignore sending their children to school.

Lack of coordination

There is a lack of coordination between the local community and the educational institutions which leads to issues in universalizing elementary education.

An attitude of Indifference

There is an air of indifferent attitude by the higher authorities which leads to a lack of effort in the universalization of elementary education.

Lack of funds

There is an inadequacy of funds which leads to a lack of learning resources and materials.


Even though education may be free, there are still some expenses parents have to incur and those belonging to a poor social class may therefore refrain from sending their children to school.

Lack of resources

Even with the government’s provision of learning resources, it continues to be inadequate for quality education.

Lack of motivation

Those who belong to a poor socioeconomic economic background may not consider education to be important. They motivate their children to work instead of to become educated.

The government has been taking many measures to universalize education through programs such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Kothari Commission, and National Education Policy to make a few changes in the field of education. Through Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, students can get the privilege of getting literate which can enhance every child’s personality and can provide a range of job opportunities in the same field. This phenomenon can work in making the nation educate and stand on its own without outer source’s assistance. All in all, it can help in reducing illiteracy in India.

What are the Problems of Universalisation of Elementary Education in India
What are the Problems of Universalisation of Elementary Education in India?

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