The Indian constitution has formulated several provisions for improving the educational development of Indian citizens. The aims and purpose of the Indian Constitution drawn from constitutional provisions are as follows:

Free and Compulsory Education

Under Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State Policy, the Constitution states,

“The state shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.”

Education of Minorities

Under Article 30 of the Indian Constitution,  there are certain cultural and educational rights related to the administration and establishment of educational institutions. It states:

a. “All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.”

b. “The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.”

Language Safeguards

As per Article 29(1) of the Indian Constitution,

“Any section of the citizen, residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own, shall have the right to conserve the same.”

Education for Weaker Sections

Article 15 states,

“Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of Article 29 shall prevent the state from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes.”

“The educational interests of the weaker Indian Community’s weaker sections who are educationally backward classes, scheduled castes, and scheduled tribes” are safeguarded under Articles 15, 17, and 46.

Secular Education

India is a secular country. Article 25 (1) of the Constitution gives the right to freedom of conscience for all citizens and grants the right to practice, propagate, and profess any religion. Article 28 (1) states,

“No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution if wholly maintained out of state funds.”

As per Article 30,

“The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.”

Equality of Opportunity in Educational Institutions

According to Article 29(1),

“No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.”

Instruction in Mother -Tongue

According to Article 26 (1),

“Any section of the citizens, residing in the territory of India or any part thereof, having a distinct language, script or culture of its own, shall have the right to converse the same.”

Article 350 A adds,

“It shall be the endeavour of every state and every local authority to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups.”

Promotion of Hindi

As per the Constitution,

“It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression of all the elements of the composite culture of India.”

Higher Education and Research

As per the entries in 63, 64, 65, and 66 of the List, the Parliament contains exclusive rights for the enactment of legislation related to institutions and Union Agencies.

Women’s Education

Modern Indian Education facilitates the development and growth of Women’s Education. Education of the girls is regarded with more importance than that of the boys. Article 15 (3) reads:

”Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.”

According to this Provision,

“Education will be used as an agent of basic change in the status of women. To neutralize the accumulated distortions of the past, there will be a well-conceived edge in favour of women.”

Education in the Union Territories

As per Article 239 of the Constitution,

“Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union Territory shall be administered by the president acting to such extent as he thinks fit through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify.”

Educational and cultural relations with foreign countries

According to Union List’s Entry 13,

“Participation in international conferences, associations and other bodies and implementing decisions made thereat.”

Under the Indian Constitution, many educational obligations have been entrusted to the Central Government of India. Education is one such national aspiration that can pave the way for India towards national integration and prosperity. Through education, the cultivation of Indian democracy’s ethos and values can be fostered among the citizens.

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