The citizens of India are entitled to certain rights and obliged to certain duties. As responsible citizens of the nation, people must abide by these laws and carry out their responsibilities and duties. Similarly, for the prevention of justice and promotion of harmony, knowing our fundamental rights is essential.
During the years 1947 to 1949, the Constitution of India developed and prescribed the duties, rights, and fundamental obligations of the State to its citizens. These fundamental rights and duties were created under the following sections which constitute the essential elements of the Indian constitution.
The directive principles of state policy can be found in Part IV of the Indian Constitution. The government has to follow certain guidelines to frame certain Laws which are included in the Directive Principles of State Policy. They cannot be enforced by the courts under their respective jurisdiction as per Article 37. Its main function is to lay down the fundamental guidelines and principles for governance. While designing or framing the laws, the State must follow these principles, and emphasis is laid on the Welfare of State Model.
Fundamental Rights of Indian Citizens
As defined in Part III of the Constitution, fundamental rights refer to the basic human rights of all citizens, irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, or gender. The courts enforce these rights and are subject to specific restrictions. The fundamental rights of the citizens of India following the Constitution are as follows.
- Right to Equality
- Right to freedom
- Right against exploitation
- Right to freedom of religion
- Cultural and Educational Rights
- Right to Constitutional Remedies
Fundamental Duties of Indian Citizens
Fundamental duties refer to the moral obligations of all citizens for promoting a sense of patriotism and fostering the unity of India. It concerns the individuals and the nation. It is added in Part IVA of the Constitution and similar to the Directive Principles, the law cannot enforce them. Here are the fundamental duties of Indian citizens.
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service for the nation’s security when called upon to do so.
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, social and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.
- To provide opportunities for education to children or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years.
According to the 86th constitutional amendment in 2002, the people of India must strive to make India a safer and cleaner place to live in by keeping the surroundings clean. They should not hurt anyone physically and mentally.