National Curriculum Framework 2005 recommends the implementation of the policy of inclusion in all schools. It suggests that this framework should be incorporated throughout the education system to make sure that there is a participation of all children in all spheres of their life both inside and outside the school. Inclusive Education means,
“a system of education wherein students with and without disability learn together and the system of teaching and learning is suitably adapted to meet the learning needs of different types of students with disabilities.”
Increasing awareness of the philosophy of inclusive education should be made among teachers. They should be oriented and equipped to make different kinds of adjustments that schools have to make in terms of infrastructure, curriculum, teaching methods, and other school practices to develop. This is done to enhance their professional skills and to make them capable of addressing the diverse learning needs of all learners.
NCF 2005 has five main principles which are as follows:
- To connect knowledge to life outside school
- To ensure that students are not limited to learning mechanically, without thinking
- To enrich the curriculum and enable it to go beyond textbooks
- To make learning more flexible by integrating exams with classroom life
- To nurture an identity of prime significance informed by caring concerns within the country’s democratic polity
Recommendations of NCF 2005
The main recommendations of NCF 2005 regarding the adaptation of teaching-learning material for inclusive education are as follows:
- Learning without pressure: Teachers must strive to make learning a joyful experience and not stick to textbooks as a basis for examination. They should reduce the stress of learners and therefore, it suggests significant changes to be made in the pattern of the syllabus.
- Self-reliance: Learners must be encouraged to develop a sense of self-reliance and individual dignity. This is important for forming social relations. They should also be motivated to develop a sense of unity and promote non-violence across society.
- Child-centered approach: It encourages the promotion of universal enrollment and retention up to age 14 by teaching with a child-centered approach to learning.
- Feeling of unity: Teachers must try to instill the feeling of unity, democracy, and oneness among learners.
- Follow pillars of Education: According to P. Naik, quality, quantity, and equality are the three pillars of the education system in India and this must be promoted.
- Equality of all learners: In the social context, the curriculum published recently ensures that all schools are provided with and follow a standard framework irrespective of sex, religion, creed, and caste.
Teaching-Learning Materials for Inclusive Education
- Visual Aids: Visual aids like charts, posters, diagrams, and the like play an important role in making the classroom inclusive.
- Games: Games such as board games can make the classroom more fun and engaging. They allow learners to relax and also interact with others therapy improving their social skills.
- Audiovisual aids: Audiovisual aids like a creative PowerPoint presentation or an informative video can also spark the imagination of learners and help them develop an interest in learning.
- Activities: Incorporating activities that not only involve the mental skills of learners but also their physical skills can be helpful as some learners may be kinesthetic learners.
- Models: Using models specifically for science subjects can help learners gain more knowledge about the topic and it will help them grasp the concept with better clarity.
Teachers must try to implement the ‘three-language formula’ and stress using one’s mother tongue, including tribal language, which is the primary medium of communication. Teachers must also encourage children to be proficient in multiple languages other than their mother tongue, including English and they should emphasize the significance of reading in primary classes.