What is socialization by different authors? Explain peer group as an agent of Socialization.
Socialisation is a process that begins when a baby is born and continues into adulthood, shaping each of those stages of development all the while. Family is fundamental in every individual’s life and socialisation is a process which plays a significant role in this process because it is the source that allows a family to acquire its individual indenting. Socialisation has many aspects to it ranging from positive to negative, natural to planned, and regardless of an individual’s gender or age, they have to undergo this process in their life. A child is introduced to different aspects and some of the most important elements of socialisation such as environments, behaviours, psychological identities, physical, and cultural through the family.
When it comes to socialising at an early age, school plays a highly crucial role. The future is said to belong to children as they form the future generation and hence, ensuring that their growth and development is well rounded is highly essential for ensuring the betterment of the society as well. Although a school is mainly known to fulfil the role of imparting education, it has other roles to fulfil too. From grooming the children personally and morally to transforming them practically, a school plays an integral role in the development of a child. There are many factors in the school that affect a child’s development such as surroundings, curriculum, teachers, and the like that can help a child develop good values and ethics.
Definition of Socialization:
1. W.F. Ogburn:
“Socialisation is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.”
2. E.S. Bogardus:
“Socialisation is the process of working together, of developing group responsibility or being guided by the welfare needs of others.” Socialisation can be defined as the process of learning to associate and relate with other people.”
3. Horton and Hunt (1968):
“Socialisation is the process whereby one internalises the norms of his groups so that a distinct ‘self emerges, unique to this individual.”
4. Havighurst and Newgarton:
“Socialization is the process by which children learn the ways of their society and make these ways part of their own personality.”
“Socialization consists of the complex processes of interaction through which the individual learns the habits, beliefs, skills and standards of judgment that are necessary for his effective participation in social groups and communities.”
6. H.T. Majumdar:
“Socialization as the process whereby original nature is transformed into human nature and the individual into person”.
7. A.W. Green:
“Socialization is the process by which the child acquires a cultural content, along with selfhood and personality”.
8. Peter Worsley:
“Socialization as the process of transmission of culture, the process whereby men learn the rules and practices of social groups.”
Peer Group as an Agent of Socialization
1. Social Support:
When a child is exposed to and interacts with a peer group, he or she gets to socialise with people from different cultures and backgrounds. Through this interaction, they can build a social circle which enables them to gain social support from their peers and become better members of the society.
2. Social Norms:
Peer groups also allow an individual to develop different ethics and values as well as behaviours that are expected from them by the society. Through interaction with the peer groups, children begin to understand social norms, develop social skills, and navigate social relationships.
3. Positive Influence:
Peer groups can also be a positive influence upon the attitudes and beliefs of an individual where they can be affected upon various social issues like social justice, religion, politics, and the like.
Every single interaction the child has, regardless of how big or how small it is, aids them in learning language skills, coping with emotions, and working within social norms. This eventually helps them in identifying their thoughts and emotions as they grow.