Critical Perspective, Characteristics of the Construct of Intelligence

Definition of Intelligence 

1. Wechsler:

Intelligence is the global and aggregate capacity of an individual to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with his/her environment.

2. Alfred Binet:

Intelligence is the ability to judge well, understand well and reason well.

3. Stern:

Intelligence is a general capacity of an individual to adjust his thinking to new requirements and it is general mental adaptability to new problems and conditions of life.

4. Ramos-Ford, V., and Gardner, H.:

Intelligence is an ability or set of abilities that permit an individual to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting.

5. Woodworth and Marquis:

Intelligence means intellect put to use. It is the use of intellectual abilities for handling a situation or accomplishing any task.

6. Robert Sternberg:

Intelligence is the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to, as well as shaping and selection of, any environmental context.

7. Freeman:

It is a capacity for successful adjustment by means of traits which we ordinarily call intellectual.

8. H. Gardner:

Intelligence is the ability to solve problems, or to create products, that are valued within one or more cultural settings.

9. H. Nakashima:

“Intelligence is the ability to process information properly in a complex environment. The criteria of properness are not predefined and hence not available beforehand. They are acquired as a result of the information processing.”

10. P. Wang:

Intelligence is the ability for an information processing system to adapt to its environment with insufficient knowledge and resources.

Critical Perspective of the Construct of Intelligence 

1. Terman: Intelligence is the ability to abstract thinking.

2. Binet: Intelligence is a capacity to think well, to judge well and to be self-critical.

3. Woodworth: Intelligence is the capacity to acquire capacity.

4. Educational Dictionary: Intelligence indicates the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.

5. Spearman: Intelligence is rational thinking.

Approaches to Construct of Intelligence 

1. Psychometric Approach: It views intelligence as an aggregate of abilities. It expresses the individual’s performance in terms of a single index of cognitive abilities.

2. Information Approach: It considers the processes people use in intellectual reasoning and problem-solving. It lays major stress on how an intelligent person acts. It emphasises studying cognitive functions underlying intelligent behaviour.

According to Louis Thurstone, intelligence has seven primary abilities:

1. Verbal Comprehension

2. Numerical Abilities

3. Spatial Relations

4. Perceptual Speed

5. Word Fluency 

6. Memory

7. Inductive Reasoning

Importance of the Critical Perspective of the Construct of Intelligence 

1. Advanced logical thinking, questioning, and problem-solving behaviour are considered to be important for construction of intelligence.

2. To gain insight into the construction of Intelligence, high speed in processing information is critical. 

3. High level of intrinsic motivation and self-esteem is intrinsic for the person to develop a high level of intelligence.

4. It stresses upon Convergent and Divergent thinking for the development of intellectual abilities and capabilities.

5. For construction of intelligence, superior generalization and discrimination ability are extremely necessary. 

Characteristics of the Construct of Intelligence 

1. Intelligence cannot be acquired because it is inborn. 

2. Intelligence varies in every person.

3. Intelligence does not differ in individuals  due to gender differences.

4. Intelligence is also affected by environmental training and education.

5. Heredity also impacts intelligence.

6. Intelligence and knowledge are closely related.

7. Intelligence is an ability to complete intellectual tasks.

8. Intelligence helps in learning and in adjustment.

9. Environment also plays a role in impacting intelligence.

10. Intelligence helps in solving complex problems.

11. Intelligence is an ability to gather experience.

12. Intelligence is characterised by an ability to face social situations,

13. Intelligence is not one but a group of abilities.

14. Intelligence is not knowledge but is related to knowledge.

15. Intelligence is a basic ability and acquired skill, not talent. 

16. Intelligence is not synonymous to memory.

17. Intelligence is not synonymous to skill. Skill can be learnt but not intelligence.

Intelligence, therefore, can be regarded as the ability of perceiving, learning, understanding, and knowing.