Concept of Development and its Relationship with Learning CTET Notes

Development is a term that refers to simultaneous and progressive series of changes to growth relating to various quantitative and qualitative changes which are coherent in nature. These changes are associated with growth and it eventually progresses towards maturity. This development takes place in several aspects of the individual such as mental, physical, and emotional state of mind. An individual manifests new traits and abilities in the process of development which results in an individual’s progressive change of behaviour.

Definition of Development: 

1. Gran (1983): “Development is a social and practical process which aims at the liberation of human potential so that people acquire the maximum socially feasible and practical control over all the available resources needed for the realisation of basic human needs and security.”

2. Rogers (1990:30):

“Development is a long, participatory process of social change in a society whose objective is the material and social progress of the majority of the population through a better understanding of their environment.”

3. J.E. Anderson (1950):

“Development is concerned with growth as well as those changes in behaviour which result from environmental situations.”

4. Pearson (1992):

“Development is an improvement, qualitative, quantitative, or both, in the use of available resources.”

5. Tayebwa (1992:261):

“Development is a broad term which should not be limited to meaning economic development, economic welfare, or material well being.”

6. As per Tayebwa,

“development in general includes improvements in economic, social, and political aspects of a whole society, like security, culture, social activities, and political institutions.”

7. Coetzee (2001:126):

“Development is therefore less concerned about human wealth than well-being as its ultimate end, the basis of which are livelihood, security, and sustainability.”

8. Liebert, Poulos, and Marmor (1979):

“Development refers to a process of change in growth and capability over time, as a function of both maturation and interaction with the environment.”

9. Todaro and Smith (2006:22):

“Development is both a physical reality and a state of mind in which society has secured the means for obtaining a better life.”

10. Burkey (1993:35):

“Development is also a process by which an individual develops self-respect and becomes more self-confident, self-reliant, cooperative, and tolerant towards others through becoming aware of his/her shortcomings as well as his/her potential for positive change. This takes place through working with others, acquiring new knowledge, and active participation in the economic, social, and political development of their communities.”

11. Hurlock (1959):

“Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly, predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience.”

Relationship of Development with Learning

According to E.L. Thorndike,

“Learning is a gradual process where the individual will make many attempts to learn.”

1. Learning assists in the process of development by allowing individuals to have social interaction with their peers and teachers which would not be possible in isolation. 

2. During the stage of growth, an individual interacts with the environment and surroundings which facilitates learning as well as development of behavioural and mental abilities for survival. 

3. Although both learning and development are different psychological processes, development and learning both affect one another as learning involves acquiring new habits and knowledge which aid in the development of an individual. 

Ambrose states,

“Learning is a process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience and increases the potential for improved performance and future learning.”