What are the 12 Principles of Child Development and learning with Examples CTET Notes

Hurlock (1959) states,

“Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly, predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience.”

Development is a term that refers to simultaneous and progressive series of changes to growth relating to various quantitative and qualitative changes which are coherent in nature. These changes are associated with growth and it eventually progresses towards maturity. This development takes place in several aspects of the individual such as mental, physical, and emotional state of mind. An individual manifests new traits and abilities in the process of development which results in an individual’s progressive change of behaviour.

Gran (1983) adds,

“Development is a social and practical process which aims at the liberation of human potential so that people acquire the maximum socially feasible and practical control over all the available resources needed for the realisation of basic human needs and security.” 

1. Principle of Continuity:

Development is a continuous process which begins with the prenatal stage and ends with death.

2. Principle of Integration:

This principle involves movement of development from the whole to parts and from parts to the whole integrating all the specific and general responses. For example, a child learns to move hands, then fingers, then both hands which leads to integration. 

3. Principle of lack of uniformity in the developmental rate:

It includes development but not in a steady and uniform manner. For example: A person may have quick physical development but slow mental development. 

4. Principle of Individual Difference:

Development has no fixed rate and all children may develop at a different pace.

5. Principle of uniformity pattern:

Development includes individual differences but follows a definite pattern. 

6. Principle of proceeding from general to specific:

It is concerned with the development of any aspect of personality. For example: A child may first exhibit a general response and then exhibit specific and goal-directed responses.

7. Principle of interaction between Heredity and Environment:

Both these factors play an important role in development. 

8. Principle of Interrelation:

If the body is healthy, it also leads to physical strength, emotional stability, and a socially conscious personality. 

9. Principle of Cephalocaudal:

Development happens from head to toe and follows the direction of the longitudinal axis.

10. Principle of Proximodistal:

It involves the development of motor skills to start at central body parts to outwards.

11. Principle of predictability:

The sequence and pattern of development can be predicted with the help of uniformity. 

12. Principle of Spiral versus Linear advancement:

During advancement, development turns back and then moves forward again in a spiral pattern. 

Rogers (1990:30):

“Development is a long, participatory process of social change in a society whose objective is the material and social progress of the majority of the population through a better understanding of their environment.”

Burkey further adds,

“Development is also a process by which an individual develops self-respect and becomes more self-confident, self-reliant, cooperative, and tolerant towards others through becoming aware of his/her shortcomings as well as his/her potential for positive change. This takes place through working with others, acquiring new knowledge, and active participation in the economic, social, and political development of their communities.