What were the impact of british education in India?

British education in India is commonly referred to as Westernisation. Westernisation refers to adopting practices and culture of the Western Europe by countries and societies in various parts of the world, whether it is through influence or compulsion. 

M.N. Srinivas states, “Westernisation” refers to “the changes brought about in the Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule and the term subsumes changes occurring at different levels – technology, institutions, ideology and values.” He also used the term “Westernisation” to describe, “the changes that a non-western country had undergone as a result of prolonged contact with the western one.” Some important characteristics of westernisation include equalitarianism, humanitarianism, initiation of social reforms, predominance of science and technology, and initiation of social reforms.

Levels of Westernisation

Westernisation occurs in three levels which are as follows: 

1. Primary level: At this level, a minority of people were influenced by western cultures by coming into contact with the same. 

2. Secondary level: The secondary level of westernisation involves that section of the Indian society who are directly in contact with the primary beneficiaries. 

3. Tertiary level: The tertiary level includes those who came into contact with the British indirectly and the devices introduced by them.

Impact of English Education

The introduction of English education in India led to the following two-fold impact: 

1. Inculcation of the western values and ideologies among the educated people, and

2. The rise of social and cultural reformation movements.

Y. Singh (1973) observed the following results of Westernisation: 

1. The growth of a universalistic legal superstructure

2. Expansion of education

3. Urbanisation and industrialisation

4. Increased network of communication

5. Growth of nationalism and politicisation of the society

Impact of British Education in India 

1. Increased Employment Opportunities: Modernisation is characterised by industrialisation which means that many new industries keep emerging and they will require human services to progress. Due to this, several vacancies spring forth creating more employment opportunities.

2. National Economic Growth: Due to the establishment of various innovative and novel business organisations, companies make huge profits which can also be contributed towards the economic growth of the nation. 

3. Spread of Literacy: The government is making constant efforts to reduce illiteracy by introducing various policies that make education compulsory up to a certain age which has led to a rise in the literacy rate. 

4. Industrialisation: There are many industries being established to perform various works and functions and these modern industries have also rapidly been replacing traditional industries. 

5. Rise in National Income: Modernisation has also led to an increase in the national income due to the exporting of industrial goods so that the nation can also benefit from the same and earn huge profits. 

The factors contributing to modernisation as mentioned above are prevalent throughout the country. Along with this, the enactment of various systems such as judiciary, law courts, legislations, law commissions and legal innovations related to rules of marriage, family, divorce, adoption, inheritance, minorities, land rights, trade, commerce, industries, labour, and the like were implemented.