“modernization is historically a process of change that is oriented towards social, economic and political systems like Western Europe.”
In sociological terms, modernisation refers to the transformation of a rural, agrarian, and traditional society into an urban, industrial, and secular society. Modernization in India took its root after the nation’s contact with the Western societies and the establishment of British rule. As a result, many social and cultural changes approached the country. Daniel Lerner adds,
“Modernization is the current term for an old process of social change whereby less developed societies acquire the characteristics common to more developed societies”.
Changes and Impact of the Modernisation on Society
Increased Employment Opportunities:
Modernisation is characterised by industrialisation which means that many new industries keep emerging and they will require human services to progress. Due to this, several vacancies spring forth creating more employment opportunities.
National Economic Growth:
Due to the establishment of various innovative and novel business organisations, companies make huge profits which can also be contributed towards the economic growth of the nation.
Spread of Literacy:
The government is making constant efforts to reduce illiteracy by introducing various policies that make education compulsory up to a certain age which has led to a rise in the literacy rate.
There are many industries being established to perform various works and functions and these modern industries have also rapidly been replacing traditional industries.
Rise in National Income:
Modernisation has also led to an increase in the national income due to the exporting of industrial goods so that the nation can also benefit from the same and earn huge profits.
S.H. Alatas states,
“Modernization is a process by which modern scientific knowledge is introduced in the society with the ultimate purpose of achieving a better and a more satisfactory life in the broadest sense of the term as accepted by the society concerned.”