Discuss the concept of urbanization

Thompson Warren defines urbanisation as,

“the movement of people from communities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to other communities, gen­erally larger whose activities are primarily centred in government, trade, manufacture, or allied interests.”

Anderson on the other hand believes,

“ur­banization is not a one-way process but it is a two-way process.”

Urbanism is a concept that revolves around the organisation and lifestyle of a society which includes the use of technology, division of labour, high mobility, social relations’ impersonality, and interdependence of the society’s members upon the fulfilment of economic functions. 

Concept of urbanization and urbanism with reference to indian society

The concept of urbanisation and urbanism with reference to India is one that mostly exists in large Indian cities because the rate of urbanisation is relatively faster in these areas. Wirth defines a city as,

“a relatively large, dense and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals.”

Robert Redfield (.American Journal of Sociology, January 1942) adds,

“urban society’ is characterized by a large heterogeneous population, close contact with other societies (through trade, communi­cation, etc.), a complex division of labour, a prevalence of secular over sacred concerns, and the desire to organize behaviour rationally toward given goals, as opposed to following traditional standards and norms.”

Issues arising from urbanisation in India

Some issues arising from urbanisation in India are as follows: 

1. Unemployment

2. Inadequacy of Water 

3. Health Problems 

4. Transport Problems 

5. Environment Quality Degradation 

6. Overcrowding 

7. Sewerage Problems 

8. Spread of Slums and Squatter Settlements 

9. Population Growth and Poverty

10. Increase in Traffic and Pollution 

As per recent surveys, the urban population of India constitutes an estimate of 461 million people. This number is subject to growth by 2.3 percent each year. Cities have been accounted to provide 75 percent of India’s national income by 2031. Economic growth is not one of the major causes of urbanisation but rather an integral part of it.