The POA 1992 aims to achieve the realization of long-term goals such as universal enrollment and retention. It was a program resulting from the National Policy of Education to improve the quality of education in India and promote inclusive classrooms as well. The same series of chapters from 1986 is being followed in 1992.
The main objectives and recommendations of POA 1992 are as follows:
Early Childhood Care and Education
The POA laid stress on the need to strengthen the programs and their components To materialize the aims of the NPE 1986. A coordinated functioning of the government and non-government agencies was suggested by the POA to meet the goals of the ECCE programs. Early childhood and care were also given special importance and it proposed special training for the Anganwadi workers to enhance the early childhood education quality.
Universalization of Elementary Education – UEE
POA aimed to achieve the targets for UEE. It recommended many innovations and revised schemes like the ‘Non-Formal Education’ for students who could not attend school full time. It also laid stress on 10 states and shared the responsibility between the center and state government in the ratio of 50:50.
Plan of Action 1992 acknowledged the need to expand the opportunities for secondary education. It envisioned increased participation of the backward classes. However, the POA 1992 reorganized and increased the autonomy of the Boards of Secondary Education. It also put forward the visionary idea of improving digital literacy and technological skills among students which helped the future.
Navodaya Vidyalayas to Improve the Quality of Education
The POA 1992 envisioned the opening of Navodaya Vidyalayas across India which aimed to help the high achievers regardless of their socioeconomic backgrounds. This proposal became beneficial because it improved the quality of schooling for the masses as an estimated 40.7% of the students were already below the poverty line.
Women’s education was also emphasized by this program of action. It recommended development programs and aimed to enhance their legal literacy. It recommended running gender and poverty sensitization programs to prevent issues like gender disparity. All teachers were suggested to be trained through innovative training programs. It also aimed to create new women’s study centers through institutions and women’s organizations.
Adult Education and Micro-Planning
The committee also suggested the improvement of educational opportunities for adults under the Non-Formal Education initiatives. Innovative programs like the open school system and distance education were also recommended for female students residing in remote, rural, and urban areas. Educational micro-planning was suggested for students living in tribal areas. Special importance was also laid on the education of adult illiterate women.
Education for Students With Disabilities
The committee reoriented the teacher training as per the inclusive classrooms To meet the needs of special students for at least 12.59 million children with disabilities. Reorientation of non-formal and adult educational programs was also given importance.
These were the various objectives and recommendations of the POA that have played an important role in improving the quality of education across India.
Chapters of programme of action, 1992:
Education for women’s equality:
The female literacy rate is 39.42% as compare to 63.86% for males according to the 1991 census. It emphasis on encouraging educational institutes to bring about active programs to enhance women’s participation and development in all the fields. It focuses on providing a professional education and vocational education to women in order to break gender prejudices. A monitoring unit will be created in the planning division of the department of education.
Education of scheduled caste, scheduled Tribes and other backward sections:
In this program, the focus was given on elementary education in order to enhance the participation and achievement of ST and SC category. It focused on adult education, scholarships and reservations from the belonging category. There will be special efforts in order to improve the educational infrastructure in remote areas border areas hilly and desert areas. Special provision was passed to monitor and evaluate the proposed schemes.
It has been found that some minority groups are educationally backward and deprived. Therefore, greater attention has to be paid on the education level of these deprived groups through which they can get equality and educational opportunities for better future. Mrs. Gandhi focused on 15 point program for welfare of minorities in which she mainly focused on Point 11 and Point 12. It was mainly focused that ITI and polytechnic courses should be implanted in government and private agencies specially in minority areas. It has major concerns on early childhood care and education centres, primary education, middle and higher secondary education, higher education, vocational and technical education, women’s education and organisational and management lessons.
Education of the handicapped:
It has been assumed that population with disabilities would have grown at the same rate as the general population. Therefore, it becomes mandatory to provide special training to teachers as well as to build special schools for disabled. it mainly focuses on educational and educational guidance and administrators in the field of special education. Special teachers must be hired in order to make disabled learn in a better way which can be possible through training of special education to teachers.
Adult and continuing education:
The national literacy Mission had been launched to provide a societal and technological growth to the society on 5 May 1988 which mainly focused on the age group of 15 to 35 years old. Therefore, this program focused on strengthening the mentioned policies. it mainly focuses on mass campaign and media strategies in order to raise awareness among people. It had added further implications in support of academic and technical resource support and integration. There must be programs to integrate academic education and post literacy education. Beside that skill development programmes has to be added in the post literacy courses. A new department should be built in the area of research naming Research National Institute of Adult Education.
Early childhood care and education:
It had been realised that physical and mental growth had been influenced by age. Therefore, a number of programs of ECCE had been introduced after the national policy for children, 1974. ECCE mainly focused on the issue that every child has to be assured regarding fulfilment of their basic needs.
It focused on revising the curriculum which had been existing before the program. It also focused on reducing the burden of school bag. A standard level of learning has to be set as per their educational level.
Through this program, a revised policy formulation has to be made for secondary education in which secondary education facilities has to be expanded and planned all over the nation. It mainly focus on increasing the participation of girls, assess and ST in science and other vocational courses. it mainly focused on the improvement of secondary education in all forms.
Navodaya Vidyalayas were set up in 1986 into 280 districts in all across the 29 states and union territories for the potentially higher achiever children, despite their economical background. The integration of state government and Centre government is needed to establish Navodaya Vidyalayas in every district.
Prevocational programmes would be provided at the lower stage in order to have plenty of vocational courses option in the higher secondary stage. Vocational educational programmes has to be made for special groups or other special areas. Voluntary organisations had to be provided assistance who are working for experimental and innovative ideas.
In the programme, the concept of mobility was discussed. it focus that stage government in universities should not be partial to their native residence, whereas the admission should be provided on the basis of merit. It focused on promotion of science, education, universities along with the development of autonomous colleges and departments. Further it discussed about conducting research in universities and managing finances with regular monitoring and review.
The national open school, which were already established, had to be Stanford and developed in order to provide access to education in the area of secondary and higher secondary education. Along with that, education which could provide employment has to be provided to the students. There should be improvement in the resources of open education and objectives.
Delinking degrees from jobs and manpower planning:
It focused on strengthening some areas, where a degree is not needed in order to get a job and earning. An appropriate machinery such as national evaluation organisation was made to conduct on our voluntary basis in order to analyse the suitability of candidates for the specific job.
Rural universities and institutes:
The central Council of rural institutes has to be set up as per the program. It would mainly focus on promoting the concept of rural education on the basis of Mahatma Gandhi’s revolutionary ideas on education mentioned in NPE.
Technical and management education:
In the programme, it was mentioned that all India Council of technical education was conferred a statutory status under the AICTE act. In 1987. It mainly focused on upgrading the skills of working professionals. The great emphasis was given on the modernisation of laboratories, workshops and teaching processes in the area of latest technologies in the engineering field. The issue of a brain drain was also raised.
Research and development:
It focused that the research and higher education should be integrated in order to get best results. The programme by UGC named committee for strengthening of infrastructure in science and technology programme should further be stamped and monitored on regular basis.
The cultural perspective:
in the programme, existing cultural institutions and programs have to be strengthened and develop such as centre for cultural resources and training, museums and archaeological service zonal cultural centres. Development of new institutions has to be made which should be reviewed and monitored on regular basis.
Development of languages:
This programme focused on implementing three language formula along with making some improvements in language competencies of students. It also focused on developing the study of modern Indian languages while making Hindi as a linking language.
Media and educational technology:
In this programme in service training of teachers would be given importance through TV and radio. Vivek Darpan would provide support for the continuation of education. The class project in 2598 schools through the use of computers will be initiated. Some courses for the training of teachers will be initiated.
Sports, physical education and youth:
one third of the population of India is of young age therefore, to attain the physical health of the youngsters, several schemes will be initiated and expanded such as the national service scheme (NSS), Bharat Scouts and guides the National Cadets Corps (NCC). Special incentives will be provided for sports and physical education.
Evaluation process and examination:
A minimum level of learning will be set along with continuous comprehensive evaluation. The regular monitoring and evaluation will be held. The national evaluation organisation will be developed as a quality control mechanism.
Teachers and their training:
Teacher education sponsored from Centre should be introduced. There can be certain programs for the teacher educators such as DIET, CTE, SCERT implemented by NCERT,NIEPA et cetera. The national Council of Teacher education will be provided statutory status.
Management of education:
In this chapter, the management from the primary education to higher education is mentioned it mentions about educational management system and decentralisation and involvement of people for the better education system there should be a different committee in the rural areas, naming village education, committee and local bodies from the urban area should also be managed properly.