Jerome Bruner is regarded as one of the most influential and renowned educational psychologists of the twentieth century. In 1966, he researched about the cognitive development of children and identified three stages of representation namely, the enactive stage, the iconic stage, and the symbolic representation stage. He believed that the intellectual development of an individual should be the primary goal of education instead of rote memorization. His main contribution is the proposal of three stages of intellectual development which are as follows:
- Enactive stage: Enactive representation makes use of actions to represent knowledge.
- Iconic stage: Iconic representation uses visual images to represent knowledge.
- Symbolic stage: Symbolic representation uses symbols and words to represent knowledge and experience.
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