Factors Influencing Growth and Development of a Child B.Ed Notes


There are various factors that influence growth and development in various ways. These factors can be of the following types:

  1. Psychological Factors
  2. Biological Factors
  3. Hereditary Factors
  4. Social Factors
  5. Environmental Factors

However, these factors will be discussed in detail along with examples.

Psychological Factors

Interests and Talents

A child having different interests would be driven towards following the particular path due to the interest he or she has in different areas. These chosen paths put an impact on the growth and development of an individual. For example, choosing art as a career.


Motivation is one factor that puts an impact on the growth and development of a child. This motivation can be self-driven or can be from an outer source. For example, motivation to study in the schooling time.

Lack of Confidence

Some children have a lack of confidence which determines the mental growth and mental development of a child. This can resist them to build a social relationship with others making it put an impact on their mental development.

Effects of Conflicts

A child’s growth and development can get adversely affected by the conflicts that occurred at home, bullying at school or other social conflicts in society.

Intellectual Level or Cognitive Abilities

Intellect levels surely impact the academic performances and the will to learn more which can bring about various growth and developmental hindrances. This can be affected by individual differences.

Parent-Child Relationship

The relationship a child holds with his or her parents certainly builds the foundation of psychological strength as a child may feel mentally confident to take any decision which determines the psychological growth and development.

Biological Factors

Physical Health

The physique, body structure, height, and aesthetic appearance build an individual’s personality which are biological factors. Therefore, due to these factors, a child may experience different kinds of growth as well as development.


It has been analyzed that girls grow faster than male children. Hence, the gender factor also determines a child’s growth as well as development.

Nervous System

A child’s behavior is determined by the functioning of the nervous system which includes sleeping, way of thinking, making decisions, judgment level, understanding, getting emotional as well as the act of being isolated, and so on.

Hereditary Factors


Coloration affects building a person’s personality. The fair-skinned may feel confident as society considers it to be aesthetically beautiful rather than dark-skinned. Owing to these reasons, a person may feel underconfident which restricts a person to build the personality as a whole.

Height and Weight

The height and weight factor also play an important role in determining a person’s personality development. Such as, a person who is overweight can be bullied by schoolmates with various names which can develop a feeling of embarrassment. Similarly, a tall or short heightened person may experience the same emotions.

Physical Defects and Disabilities

The disabilities and physical defects such as blindness, deafness, lameness, any kind of phobia give birth to the inferiority complex which becomes the hindrance for building a strong personality in any person with disabilities.

4. Social Factors

Parental Attitude Towards Children in the Family

If a child’s parents put certain pressure on the child for their career options, it may make the child feel judged and criticized by the life decisions. Therefore, the attitude of the parents towards their child determines the child’s growth and development.

Size of the Family

A child’s upbringing gets affected as per the structure and size of the family. The child in a joint family can learn different kinds of things to be reminded under surveillance however, a child in the nuclear family can get more attention.

Influence of the Neighborhood

The neighborhood impacts on a child’s growth through which a child builds good or bad habits after watching the neighbor children’s behavior. If they would be well-mannered then that child is automatically inculcated with ethical values.

The relationship with Teachers

The teacher plays the role of an ideal as well as a parent for the student. A teacher can make a student feel confident about the mannerism in the school.

The Relationship with Classmates

A child is most likely to develop behavior, habits, attitudes, and demands as per the company he or she gets at school with classmates and peers.

Rapid Social Change

Undoubtedly, due to the introduction of social media, children are getting more socialized than in the previous era which can bring about rapid social change. This inclination in the social change can definitely put some effect on the growth and development of a child.

Influence of Society and Culture

It is evident that a child builds his or her belief through tradition, culture, and society in which he or she resides and belongs. These cultures and traditions determine the attitude and the way of thinking of an individual.


Due to the unemployment and lack of financial assistance an individual can feel a lack of confidence while building a social relationship in the society as the social status is determined by the amount of money a person possesses.

Environmental Factors

Influence of Pollution

The amount of pollution in the area in which people reside also put some effects on the physical and mental health of the child. These different kinds of pollution can cause Asthma, respiratory problems, and many more.


Some areas which are relatively hot or cold can also affect an individual’s mood to be indulged in activities.

Geological Location

Certainly, the geographic location of the area also put an impact on the growth and development of that particular area’s people. Such as, the snowfall areas are more likely to get closed in winter areas which can slow down the economy of the area in those times.

Read the Complete Course: Childhood and Growing Up – Growth and Development

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